Notes for NIELIT CCC Exam – Chapter 6: Introduction to Internet and WWW (Networking). To the point short notes cover Basic of Computer Networks, LAN, WAN, Internet, Website Address and URL, IP Address, Modes of Connecting Internet (Hotspot, WiFi, LAN Cable, Broadband, USB Tethering), and Popular Web Browsers,
Internet and WWW (Networking) Notes
Basic of Computer Networks:
- Computer networks are a collection of interconnected devices that can communicate and share resources.
- Networks allow computers to exchange data and collaborate, enabling users to access information and services.
- Networks can be categorized based on their geographical coverage and scale.
Local Area Network (LAN):
- A Local Area Network (LAN) is a network that covers a small geographical area such as a home, office, or building.
- LANs connect computers and devices within a limited area, allowing them to share resources like files, printers, and internet access.
- LANs are typically faster and have lower latency compared to other types of networks.
Wide Area Network (WAN):
- A Wide Area Network (WAN) spans a large geographical area, often connecting multiple LANs or remote locations.
- WANs utilize various technologies like leased lines, satellite links, or internet connections to establish connectivity over long distances.
- Examples of WANs include the internet and corporate networks that connect branch offices.
- Network topology refers to the arrangement or structure of a computer network.
- Different network topologies include bus, star, ring, mesh, and hybrid topologies.
- Topology affects how devices are connected, how data flows, and the network’s resilience to failures.
Concept of Internet & WWW:
- The Internet is a global network of interconnected computer networks that enables communication and the sharing of information worldwide.
- The World Wide Web (WWW) is a system of interconnected documents and resources accessible through the Internet.
- The Internet and WWW are often used interchangeably, but they represent different concepts.
Applications of Internet:
- The Internet has numerous applications, including communication (email, instant messaging), information retrieval (search engines), social media, online shopping, entertainment, and more.
- It has revolutionized various industries and transformed the way people interact, work, and access information.
Website Address and URL:
- Websites are accessed using website addresses or Uniform Resource Locators (URLs).
- A URL consists of different components, including the protocol (e.g., http:// or https://), domain name (e.g., www.example.com), and specific page or resource location.
Introduction to IP Address:
- An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique numerical identifier assigned to each device connected to a network.
- It allows devices to send and receive data over the internet or a network.
- IP addresses can be either IPv4 (32-bit) or IPv6 (128-bit) and are represented in a dotted decimal or hexadecimal format.
ISP and Role of ISP:
- An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a company that provides internet connectivity to individuals and organizations.
- ISPs offer various types of connections like broadband, DSL, cable, or wireless to access the internet.
- ISPs act as intermediaries, routing data between networks and providing additional services like email and web hosting.
- The Internet Protocol (IP) is a set of rules and protocols that govern how data is transmitted over the internet.
- It provides addressing, routing, and fragmentation of data packets to ensure reliable communication between devices.
Modes of Connecting Internet (Hotspot, WiFi, LAN Cable, Broadband, USB Tethering):
There are multiple ways to connect to the internet, including:
- Hotspot: Using a mobile device’s cellular data to create a wireless network.
- WiFi: Connecting to a wireless network using a WiFi-enabled device.
- LAN Cable: Establishing a direct wired connection using an Ethernet cable.
- Broadband: High-speed internet access typically provided by ISPs through DSL, cable, or fiber connections.
- USB Tethering: Sharing a mobile device’s internet connection with another device via USB cable.
Identifying and uses of IP/MAC/IMEI of various devices:
- IP Address: Identifies a device on a network and enables communication over the internet or local network.
- MAC Address: A unique hardware identifier assigned to network interfaces, such as network cards or WiFi adapters.
- IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity): A unique identifier assigned to mobile devices, primarily used to identify GSM, WCDMA, and LTE devices.
Popular Web Browsers (Internet Explorer/Edge, Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, etc.):
- Web browsers are software applications used to access and view websites on the internet.
- Examples of popular web browsers include Internet Explorer/Edge, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, and Safari.
- Browsers provide features like tabbed browsing, bookmarking, extensions, and support for web standards.
Exploring the Internet:
Surfing the web:
- Surfing the web refers to the act of browsing or navigating websites on the internet.
- Users can follow hyperlinks, enter URLs, or use search engines to discover and access web pages.
Popular Search Engines:
- Search engines are online tools that help users find information on the internet.
- Examples of popular search engines include Google, Bing, Yahoo, and DuckDuckGo.
- Search engines index web pages and provide relevant results based on user queries.
Searching on the Internet:
- Searching on the internet involves using search engines or specific search queries to find information, websites, images, videos, and more.
- Search operators, filters, and advanced search techniques can refine search results and improve the accuracy of information retrieval.
Downloading Web Pages:
- Downloading web pages refers to saving web content from the internet onto a local device.
- This can be done by clicking on download links or using specific options in web browsers to save web pages offline.
Printing Web Pages:
- Web pages can be printed directly from web browsers using the print function.
- Users can customize print settings, choose page layouts, and preview the print output before printing the web page content.
Thanks for read the Internet and WWW (Networking) Notes for the preparation of CCC online test.
Chapter wise Notes for CCC Online Test
- Introduction to Computer Notes
- Introduction to Operating System Notes for CCC
- Word Processing Notes for NIELIT CCC Exam
- Spreadsheet Notes for CCC Test
- Presentation Notes including LibreOffice Impress for CCC
- Notes on E-mail, Social Networking, and e-Governance Services
- Digital Financial Tools and Applications Notes for NIELIT CCC Test
- Future Skills & Cyber Security Notes for CCC Online Test