Introduction to Operating System Notes for NIELIT CCC Exam Chapter 2. Short notes in English is very useful for the preparation of upcoming online computer course exam.
Introduction to Operating System Notes
- An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides services for computer programs.
- It acts as an intermediary between the computer hardware and the user, enabling the user to interact with the computer system.
2.2 Operating System: 2.2.1 Basics of Operating System:
- The operating system performs various functions such as process management, memory management, file system management, device management, and user interface management.
- Process management involves creating, executing, and terminating processes or programs.
- Memory management deals with allocating and managing computer memory for processes.
- File system management handles organizing and controlling access to files and directories.
- Device management involves managing input/output devices such as printers, scanners, and disks.
- User interface management provides a way for users to interact with the computer system.
2.2.2 Operating Systems for Desktop and Laptop:
- Operating systems like Windows, macOS, and Linux are commonly used on desktop and laptop computers.
- These operating systems provide a graphical user interface (GUI) that allows users to interact with the system using windows, icons, menus, and pointers.
2.2.3 Operating Systems for Mobile Phones and Tablets:
- Mobile operating systems such as Android and iOS are designed for smartphones and tablets.
- These operating systems are optimized for touchscreens and provide a different user interface compared to desktop operating systems.
- They also support various mobile-specific features like app stores, GPS, and mobile data connectivity.
2.3 User Interface for Desktop and Laptop: 2.3.1 Task Bar:
- The taskbar is a horizontal bar typically located at the bottom of the desktop screen.
- It provides quick access to commonly used programs, displays the system tray with notification icons, and shows the Start button for accessing various system functions.
2.3.2 Icons & Shortcuts:
- Icons represent files, folders, applications, or system functions.
- Shortcuts are links to files, folders, or applications that provide quick access to them.
2.3.3 Running an Application:
- To run an application, you can double-click its icon or shortcut, or select it from the Start menu or taskbar.
- The operating system launches the application and manages its execution.
2.4 Operating System Simple Settings:
2.4.1 Using Mouse and Changing its Properties:
- The mouse is a pointing device used to interact with the graphical user interface.
- Mouse properties can be adjusted in the operating system settings, such as pointer speed, button configuration, and pointer appearance.
2.4.2 Changing System Date and Time:
- The operating system allows users to change the system date and time settings.
- This can be done through the system settings or the system tray.
2.4.3 Changing Display Properties:
- Display properties can be modified to adjust screen resolution, color depth, and other visual settings.
- These settings can enhance the display appearance or improve compatibility with certain applications.
2.4.4 Adding or Removing Programs and Features:
- The operating system provides options to add or remove programs and features.
- This allows users to install or uninstall software applications and manage system components.
2.4.5 Adding, Removing & Sharing Printers:
- The operating system facilitates adding, removing, and sharing printers.
- Users can connect printers to their computers, configure print settings, and share printers with other networked computers.
2.5 File and Folder Management:
- File and folder management involves creating, organizing, and manipulating files and folders on the computer system.
- Users can create new files, rename, copy, move, and delete files and folders through the operating system’s file explorer.
2.6 Types of File Extensions:
- .txt: Text File
- A plain text file that contains unformatted text without any special formatting or styles.
- .doc/.docx: Microsoft Word Document
- A file format used by Microsoft Word to create, edit, and save text documents with various formatting options.
- .pdf: Portable Document Format
- A file format that preserves the visual appearance of a document, including fonts, images, and layout, regardless of the software or operating system used.
- .xlsx: Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet
- A file format used by Microsoft Excel to store data in a tabular form, allowing for calculations, data analysis, and visualization.
- .jpg/.jpeg: JPEG Image
- A common image file format that uses lossy compression to reduce file size while maintaining reasonable image quality.
- .png: Portable Network Graphics
- A file format for storing raster graphics with support for transparent backgrounds and lossless compression, often used for web images and graphics.
- .mp3: MP3 Audio File
- A compressed audio file format that maintains high sound quality while reducing file size, commonly used for storing music and audio recordings.
- .mp4: MP4 Video File
- A digital multimedia container format that stores video, audio, and subtitles, widely used for streaming, sharing, and playing videos.
- .zip: Compressed Archive File
- A file format that combines multiple files and folders into a single compressed archive, reducing file size for easier storage and transfer.
- .exe: Executable File
- An executable file format that contains instructions for a computer to perform specific tasks or run a program.
Chapter wise Notes for CCC Online Test
- Introduction to Computer Notes
- Word Processing Notes for NIELIT CCC Exam
- Spreadsheet Notes for CCC Test
- Presentation Notes including LibreOffice Impress for CCC
- Internet and WWW (Networking) Notes for CCC Exam
- Notes on E-mail, Social Networking, and e-Governance Services
- Digital Financial Tools and Applications Notes for NIELIT CCC Test
- Future Skills & Cyber Security Notes for CCC Online Test